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#66796 - 21 Dec 07 15:45 A Short, 15-minute History of the World
flingwing Offline
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Registered: 28 May 07
Posts: 188
Loc: Jakarta
Prophet Mohammed - A Brief Life Sketch
Mohammed was born in a family of Kuresh tribe of Mecca in 570 A.D. His mother Amina lost her husband, Abdullah, before the birth of Mohammed. She was not in a position to feed her baby. So, Mohammed was entrusted to a maid Halima to feed him with her breast milk along with her own son. Amina died when Mohammed was just six years old. He was then looked after by his uncle Abu Talib. He attached him to Khadija, a prosperous widow trader, as an assistant. After some time when Mohammed was 25 and Khadija was 40 years old, they got married. Mohammed got both love and living from her. They had six children but none except one girl, Fatima, survived. It was during this period of happy conjugal life with Khadija that Mohammed is believed to have got a revelation that God had nominated him as a Prophet.

On the basis of this revelation Mohammed declared himself as Allah's Prophet or "Rasool". Khadija was the first to accept him as Prophet and read the Kalma which said, "God is one and Mohammed is his Prophet (La lilah, Mohammed Rasoollllah)." Two other Arabs, Abu Baker and Ali followed her. Mohammed requested his uncle Abu Talib to do so but he refused. When he died Mohammed not only did not pray for him but also refused to do so on the grave of his deceased mother. He thus conveyed to his followers that after reposing their faith in him they shall have no link and regard fortheir heritage and non-Muslim dear ones, present or past.

The Arabs, in general, at that time were pagans and worshipped a number of tribal gods and goddesses whose stone images were kept in Mecca. More revered among them were the images of three goddesses, Lat, Manat and Oozza. Their images were kept in a temple called Kaba near Mecca along with the holiest image, a round stone, kept in it. People from all over Arabia used to come to Mecca to offer worship to them on the occasion of Hajj once in a year.

The Arabs were not willing to stand his tirade against these gods and goddesses. That marked the beginning of a religious and ideological clash between Mohammed and his few followers on the one side and the Arabs in general on the other. When this clash in Mecca was going on some pilgrims from Madina who had come for the Hajj met Mohammed and agreed to accept his religion and invited him to visit Madina. A bigger group of pilgrims from Madina including some women met him again on the occasion of Hajj the following year. Mohammed was then feeling uneasy because of the growing hostility towards him in Mecca. An Aayat of Quran in which he pleaded for co-existence between the pagans of Mecca and his own followers belongs to this period. But when it failed to have the desired effect on his Meccan opponents he decided to migrate to Madina. This migration of Mohammed from Mecca to Madina which is known as Hijrat in Arabic took place in 622 A.D. This marks the beginning of the Hijri era followed by the Islamic world. About the same time when Mohammed was 50 years old Khadija died.

The death of Khadija in 620 AD. and Hijrat to Madina in 622 AD. were the two major events in the life of Mohammed and growth of Islam. Khadija was not only a devoted wife but also a friend and philosopher for him. Some time after the death of Khadija, Mohammed married a Jewish widow living in Mecca who got herself converted to Islam. After reaching Madina a large number of people of Madina accepted him as Prophet of God and became Muslims. They accepted him not only as Imam or religious head but also Khalifa or political head of Madina. That marked the beginning of the Islamic concept of a theocratic state in which political and religious power is vested in one man who uses his political power to expand his religious following and extend his political sway.

Much has been written by Arabic, Islamic and European writers about the progress of Islam during the 10 years of Mohammed's life in Madina. According to authentic information, 82 bloody wars were waged during this period out of which 26 were led by Mohammed himself. The most important of them was the battle of Badar which was fought by Mohammed and his followers against the pagan Meccans. The strategy adopted to win this battle has come to be considered as a guide for Islamic rulers and leaders. President Musharraf of Pakistan advocated the strategy adopted by Mohammed to win this battle in his speech that he delivered after taking over the reins of power in Pakistan through a military coup in 1997. Victory in this battle opened the road to Mecca for him which he conquered soon after. After occupying Mecca he ordered destruction of all the 360 images of gods and goddesses kept there. But when he tried to lay his hands on the round stone kept at Kaba which according to some historians and scholars was Shivaling, the Arabs rose against him en mass. This image was worshipped by all the Arabs irrespective of their tribal rivalries. They all used to come here for annual Yatra, called Hajj, from allover Arabia. Sensing the temper of Arab people Mohammed decided to own up Kaba and its image and continue the Hajj tradition. According to the detailed reports published in reputed journals all over the world the rituals followed by the Muslim pilgrims at Kaba on the occasion of Hajj closely resemble the rituals still being followed by the pilgrims in the major centres of Shiva worship all over India.

Mohammed's conjugal life also underwent a sea-change during these ten years. The story of his marriages and the way he chose and treated his numerous wives, has since been accepted as a model code for Muslims all over the world. The third wife of Mohammed was Aisha, daughter of his close companion Abu Bakr, who was nine years at the time of marriage and Mohammed was 55. His fourth wife was Haphsa, the widowed daughter of Omar, his another close companion. His fifth wife was Zinab. The sixth was another widow. His seventh wife was Zainab who being wife of his adopted son, Zaid, was his daughter-in-law. Mohammed felt attracted by her beauty. He then told Zaid that he had got revelation that Zainab was meant for him. Zaid then divorced Zainab and Mohammed married her. Mohammed's eighth wife was Zoria, ninth was Habiba and tenth Saphia. His eleventh wife was Maimuna who was 25 years old widowed daughter of his uncle Usman. According to some writers the actual number of married wives of Mohammed was somewhat higher. Apart from these married wives Mohammed had a number of concubines prominent among whom were Moria and Indan. Of all these wives and concubines Aisha was dearest to him. She was less then 18 years when Mohammed passed away in 632 A.D. She played a key role in the choice of successors of Mohammed and is considered to be the most dependable repository of the experiences, utterances and conduct of Mohammed which are preserved in different Hadiths that are considered to be second only to Quran as source of life and teachings of Mohammed.

Mohammed was succeeded by Abu Bakr as the first Khalifa. Omar became the second Khalifa and Usman the third. All these three were his close associates and relatives. All of them were assassinated. After Usman, Ali, the son-inlaw of Mohammed, became the fourth Khalifa. He was succeeded by his son Hasan. But soon after Moaviya seized the post of Khalifa from him. He was succeeded by his son Yajid who became the seventh Khalifa. He killed Hussein, the brother of Hasan along with his 72 companions at Karbala.

These developments after the fourth Khalifa, AIi, created the first rift in Muslims. They got divided in two sects. Those who accepted Abu Bakr, Omar and Usman and their successors as lawful Khalifas are known as Sunnis. But those who refuse to accept the first three as lawful Khalifas and consider only Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed, as Khalifa have come to be known as Shias. But Shias too accept Mohammed to be the last Rasool of Allah and Quran as his book. These two major sects of Islam are spread all over the world. Sunnis are about 80 percent while Shias are only 20 percent. They are dominant in Iran, Gilgit, Baltistan and Iraq where they happen to be in majority.

–Tamat--

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#66812 - 21 Dec 07 16:37 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: flingwing]
Roy's Hair Offline
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Registered: 08 Nov 06
Posts: 3974
Loc: jakarta
There is some question as to whether Islam is a separate religion at all. It initially fulfilled a need among Arabs for a distinctive or special creed, and is forever identified with their language and their impressive later conquests, which, while not as striking as those of the young Alexander of Macedonia, certainly conveyed an idea of being backed by a divine will until they petered out at the fringes of the Balkans and the Mediterranean. But Islam when examined is not much more than a rather obvious and ill-arranged set of plagiarisms, helping itself from earlier books and traditions as occasion appeared to require. Thus, far from being "born in the clear light of history," as Ernest Renan so generously phrased it, Islam in its origins is just as shady and approximate as those from which it took its borrowings. It makes immense claims for itself, invokes prostrate submission or "surrender" as a maxim to its adherents, and demands deference and respect from nonbelievers into the bargain. There is nothing?absolutely nothing?in its teachings that can even begin to justify such arrogance and presumption.

The prophet died in the year 632 of our own approximate calendar. The first account of his life was set down a full hundred and twenty years later by Ibn Ishaq, whose original was lost and can only be consulted through its reworked form, authored by Ibn Hisham, who died in 834. Adding to this hearsay and obscurity, there is no agreed-upon account of how the Prophet's followers assembled the Koran, or of how his various sayings (some of them written down by secretaries) became codified. And this familiar problem is further complicated?even more than in the Christian case?by the matter of succession. Unlike Jesus, who apparently undertook to return to earth very soon and who (pace the absurd Dan Brown) left no known descendants, Muhammad was a general and a politician and?though unlike Alexander of Macedonia a prolific father?left no instruction as to who was to take up his mantle. Quarrels over the leadership began almost as soon as he died, and so Islam had its first major schism?between the Sunni and the Shia?before it had even established itself as a system. We need take no side in the schism, except to point out that one at least of the schools of interpretation must be quite mistaken. And the initial identification of Islam with an earthly caliphate, made up of disputatious contenders for the said mantle, marked it from the very beginning as man-made.

It is said by some Muslim authorities that during the first caliphate of Abu Bakr, immediately after Muhammad's death, concern arose that his orally transmitted words might be forgotten. So many Muslim soldiers had been killed in battle that the number who had the Koran safely lodged in their memories had become alarmingly small. It was therefore decided to assemble every living witness, together with "pieces of paper, stones, palm leaves, shoulder-blades, ribs and bits of leather" on which sayings had been scribbled, and give them to Zaid ibn Thabit, one of the Prophet's former secretaries, for an authoritative collation. Once this had been done, the believers had something like an authorized version.

If true, this would date the Koran to a time fairly close to Muhammad's own life. But we swiftly discover that there is no certainty or agreement about the truth of the story. Some say that it was Ali?the fourth and not the first caliph, and the founder of Shiism?who had the idea. Many others?the Sunni majority?assert that it was Caliph Uthman, who reigned from 644 to 656, who made the finalized decision. Told by one of his generals that soldiers from different provinces were fighting over discrepant accounts of the Koran, Uthman ordered Zaid ibn Thabit to bring together the various texts, unify them, and have them transcribed into one. When this task was complete, Uthman ordered standard copies to be sent to Kufa, Basra, Damascus, and elsewhere, with a master copy retained in Medina. Uthman thus played the canonical role that had been taken, in the standardization and purging and censorship of the Christian Bible, by Irenaeus and by Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria. The roll was called, and some texts were declared sacred and inerrant while others became "apocryphal." Outdoing Athanasius, Uthman ordered that all earlier and rival editions be destroyed.

Even supposing this version of events to be correct, which would mean that no chance existed for scholars ever to determine or even dispute what really happened in Muhammad's time, Uthman's attempt to abolish disagreement was a vain one. The written Arabic language has two features that make it difficult for an outsider to learn: it uses dots to distinguish consonants like "b" and "t," and in its original form it had no sign or symbol for short vowels, which could be rendered by various dashes or comma-type marks. Vastly different readings even of Uthman's version were enabled by these variations. Arabic script itself was not standardized until the later part of the ninth century, and in the meantime the undotted and oddly voweled Koran was generating wildly different explanations of itself, as it still does. This might not matter in the case of the Iliad, but remember that we are supposed to be talking about the unalterable (and final) word of god. There is obviously a connection between the sheer feebleness of this claim and the absolutely fanatical certainty with which it is advanced. To take one instance that can hardly be called negligible, the Arabic words written on the outside of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem are different from any version that appears in the Koran.

The situation is even more shaky and deplorable when we come to the hadith, or that vast orally generated secondary literature which supposedly conveys the sayings and actions of Muhammad, the tale of the Koran's compilation, and the sayings of "the companions of the Prophet." Each hadith, in order to be considered authentic, must be supported in turn by an isnad, or chain, of supposedly reliable witnesses. Many Muslims allow their attitude to everyday life to be determined by these anecdotes: regarding dogs as unclean, for example, on the sole ground that Muhammad is said to have done so.

As one might expect, the six authorized collections of hadith, which pile hearsay upon hearsay through the unwinding of the long spool of isnads ("A told B, who had it from C, who learned it from D"), were put together centuries after the events they purport to describe. One of the most famous of the six compilers, Bukhari, died 238 years after the death of Muhammad. Bukhari is deemed unusually reliable and honest by Muslims, and seems to have deserved his reputation in that, of the three hundred thousand attestations he accumulated in a lifetime devoted to the project, he ruled that two hundred thousand of them were entirely valueless and unsupported. Further exclusion of dubious traditions and questionable isnads reduced his grand total to ten thousand hadith. You are free to believe, if you so choose, that out of this formless mass of illiterate and half-remembered witnessing the pious Bukhari, more than two centuries later, managed to select only the pure and undefiled ones that would bear examination.

The likelihood that any of this humanly derived rhetoric is "inerrant," let alone "final," is conclusively disproved not just by its innumerable contradictions and incoherencies but by the famous episode of the Koran's alleged "satanic verses," out of which Salman Rushdie was later to make a literary project. On this much-discussed occasion, Muhammad was seeking to conciliate some leading Meccan poly-theists and in due course experienced a "revelation" that allowed them after all to continue worshipping some of the older local deities. It struck him later that this could not be right and that he must have inadvertently been "channeled" by the devil, who for some reason had briefly chosen to relax his habit of combating monotheists on their own ground. (Muhammad believed devoutly not just in the devil himself but in minor desert devils, or djinns, as well.) It was noticed even by some of his wives that the Prophet was capable of having a "revelation" that happened to suit his short-term needs, and he was sometimes teased about it. We are further told?on no authority that need be believed?that when he experienced revelation in public he would sometimes be gripped by pain and experience loud ringing in his ears. Beads of sweat would burst out on him, even on the chilliest of days. Some heartless Christian critics have suggested that he was an epileptic (though they fail to notice the same symptoms in the seizure experienced by Paul on the road to Damascus), but there is no need for us to speculate in this way. It is enough to rephrase David Hume's unavoidable question. Which is more likely?that a man should be used as a transmitter by god to deliver some already existing revelations, or that he should utter some already existing revelations and believe himself to be, or claim to be, ordered by god to do so? As for the pains and the noises in the head, or the sweat, one can only regret the seeming fact that direct communication with god is not an experience of calm, beauty, and lucidity.
_________________________
Chinese like more traditional patterns on their ring.

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#66822 - 21 Dec 07 18:01 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: Roy's Hair]
flingwing Offline
Member++

Registered: 28 May 07
Posts: 188
Loc: Jakarta
Excellent!~

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#66823 - 21 Dec 07 18:03 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: flingwing]
flingwing Offline
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Registered: 28 May 07
Posts: 188
Loc: Jakarta
Ideology and Methodology
The basic documents of Islam are Quran and Hadiths. Quran in the repository of the teachings of Mohammed which are projected as revelations of Allah to him and Hadiths present Mohammed's life in action at different times and in different situations as told by his close associates. There are a number of Hadiths being versions of some events and conduct of the Prophet at different occasions in his private and public life by different people. They do differ here and there but since all of them project Mohammed's life as the model which Muslims must follow the differing versions are not very material for understanding Islam.

Mohammed was an Arab by birth, spoke Arabic language, got his revelations in this language and concentrated on bringing whole of Arabia within his religious and political sway. That is why Islamic scholars like Anwar Sheikh consider it as basically an Arab-centric, Arab-national movement. Mohammed made it clear by his own conduct in his life time and his own projection of Arabia and Arabic language as the greatest and Kaba and Mecca which were the holiest places of all pre-Islamic Arabs, as the holiest spots for Muslims all over the world. Along with extending his sway over the whole of Arabia he started its religious cleansing by converting or decimating all Arabs who followed Judaism and Christianity in a planned and systematic way. Because he combined religious authority and political authority in his person, Arab Islamic state became a theocratic state from its very inspection. As such there is no clear demarcation between its ritualistic and political aspects. Islamic theory is thus basically exclusive and Islamic polity is theocratic.

The ideology of Islam revolves around three concepts.. The first pertains to Islam's relevance and recognition as the only truth and the last word of Allah in regard to conduct of life in all aspects. Therefore, it enjoins upon its followers to totally reject and forget their pre-Islamic past and pre-Islamic times which are denounced as Jahilya or as a period of ignorance. Mohammed himself demonstrated it by refusing to pray at the grave of his uncle Abu who had refused to accept Islam and also at the grave of his mother on the plea that they were not worthy of respect because they did not happen to be Muslims. Secondly, he projected Allah or God to be one and the only God who is tied down to Mohammed as his last Rasool or Prophet. That is why the Kalma which is supposed to be the quintessential to Islamic faith refers to both in the same breath in the following words." La Illah Mohammed Rasool Illah" i.e. Illah is one and Mohammed is his Rasool. Therefore, belief or fifth in God is incomplete unless it is accompanied by faith in Mohammed. In practice it has come to mean priority to Mohammed even over Illah.

The rituals of Islam are (1) Namaz i.e. daily prayers five times a day at any place or in a mosque with face towards Mecca : (2) Zakat which refers to leaving aside a part of one's income for charity ; (3) Roza which refers to the provision of fast from dawn to dusk during the month of Ramdan; (4) Hajj which refers to the duty of all Muslims to go on pilgrimage to Mecca and Kaba once in their life time, and the rituals that are performed at the time of Hajj link Islamic Arabia and Arabs with pre-Islamic Arabia and Arabs, because they have continued to remain the same.

Then there is the political aspect or dimension of Islam. It revolves round the concepts of Millat and Kufr, Dar-ul-Islam and Dar-ul-Harab, and Jehad. According to the concept of Millat and Kufr, Islam divides mankind between two incompatible groups i.e. those who put their faith in Mohammed and Quran and believe in his power to intercede for them for the grace of God and entry into Islamic paradise -- "Jannat" -- at the time of Qayamat, constitute the Islamic Umah or Millat. They constitute the Islamic brotherhood or that part of the mankind which is God's own party - Hizb Allah. All others who do not put their faith in Mohammed and Quran are Kafirs who must either get converted to Islam or get exterminated.

An amendment in this was made by the second Khalifa, Omar, who laid down certain conditions under which a kafir can be allowed to live (see Appendix-II). The second is Dar-ul-lslam and Dar-ul-Harab. According to this concept, the land of the world is divided in two warring parts. The territories and lands held and controlled by the Muslims where the law of Quran described as Shariat prevails, is Dar-ul-Islam. The lands on which the writ of Islam and Shariat does not run, are described as Dar-ul-Harab or land of war. The third basic concept or fundamental is Jehad. Jehad means continuous endeavours and struggles by the Millat and Dar -ul-Islam to convert or exterminate the Kafirs and conquer Dar-ul-Harab and convert them into Dar-ul-Islam.

Thus Islam divides human history into two periods. The period before the rise of Islam is the period of ignorance orJahiliyat and the period that followed it is the age of illumination or IIam. The norms of ignorance are determined not by any objective or comparative criteria but the dictums of Quran and Hadiths. In short, Islam divides time and mankind into two incompatible parts. Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism flow out of these concepts. The motivation for Jehad is provided by the rosy picture of Islamic Jannat or paradise of which a Jehadi is assured if he gets killed in the pursuit of it. Much has been written about the Islamic concept of Jehad and Quranic concept of war by many Islamic writers. "Islam- Sex and Violence" by Anwar Sheikh and" The Quranic Concept of War" by Brigadier S.K. Mallik of Pakistan Army are more notable among such books.

According the Brigadier Mallik, "The Holy Quran gives us the divine philosophy of war. The divine philosophy is an integral part of the Quranic ideology." He refers to a number of Aayats of Quran and adds, "All these revelations order the faithful Muslims to prepare themselves for war with utmost determination in order to strike terror into the hearts of the enemy. Terrorist strike into the hearts of the enemy is not only a means, it is an end in itself. It is the point where the means and the end meet and merge. To instil terror into the hearts of the enemy is essential in the ultimate analysis to dislocate his faith." (page 60) The methodology adopted to give practical shape to these concepts is illustrated by the wars in pursuit of Jehad fought by Prophet Mohammed himself and illustrated by the history of expansion of Islam after his death.

–end--

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#66824 - 21 Dec 07 18:23 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: flingwing]
Capt. Mainwaring Offline
Pujangga Besar

Registered: 16 Aug 06
Posts: 3225
Loc: here
IV
Expansion of Islam Jehad in Practice
The steps taken and means adopted by Prophet Mohammed during his life time for
propagation of Islam and expansion of Arab Islamic Empire which became the model and
guideline for his successors and followers, are reflected and illustrated by the history of
Islamic expansion since its inception. The battle of Badar fought under the direct leadership
of Mohammed which led to the conquest of Mecca and re-entry into it of Mohammed as a
conqueror and the strategy adopted to win this battle and the treatment he meted out to the
vanquished and the rules he laid down for the distribution of the booty of war called" Maale
Ganimat", have come to be accepted as the model code of conduct for the Islamic invaders
all over the world. According to this code of conduct, the Muslim invaders have to treat
every invasion as Jehad or a holy war. Victory in such a war entitled the victor to total
control over the lives and possessions of the vanquished. The defeated non-Muslims or
kafirs are to be exterminated or converted to Islam. All the places of worship where idol
worship or other non-Islamic forms of worship are followed, have to be destroyed and
supremacy of Islam in all spheres of life has to be established. The possessions of the
vanquished including their families, women, children, cattle, land and houses have to be
taken as Maale Ganimat and one-fifth of it is to be given to the leader and the rest
distributed among other Jehadis.
Those who get killed in such a Jehad are entitled to immediate entry into Islamic
Jannat (paradise) without waiting for the day of judgement or Qayamat. A very rosy picture
of the paradise is drawn in Islamic scriptures. Every entrant into it will get 72 Hureis besides
a number of young boys for eternal sexual and carnal pleasure. This promise of
continuation of sex after death in the most luxurious setting has proved to be the most
alluring motivation for Jehad all through the Islamic history. According to Anwar Sheikh ,sex
and violence have proved to be the two most importand factors in the spread of Islam and
Arab Islamic Empire.
Almost the whole of Arabia had been Islamised and cleansed of all Kafirs during the
life time of Mohammed. It got a big boost during the Khalifate of the first three Khalifas- Abu
Bakr, Omar and Usman. This brought the whole of Iran, Egypt and Northern Africa under
Arab Islamic Empire before the end of the century. In the early eighth century the Arabs and
Berber Muslims of North Africa entered into Spain by crossing the Strait of Gibraltar. Spain
was the first European country to fall and become a part of Arab Islamic Empire in 711 AD.
From Spain they tried to move into France. They won some early victories but their push
was stopped by Charles Martel of France by inflicting a decisive defeat on the invaders in
the battle of Tours in 732 AD. That put a stop to the progress of Islam in Europe from the
South-West. At the same time the Arabs continued to push towards Constantinople which
had come to be identified as the centre of Christiandom. In the meantime, many Turks had
embraced Islam and the Ottoman Turks had acquired a dominating position in the Islamic
world. They conquered Constantinople in 1453 which opened the gates of Europe for Islam
from the East. Ottoman Empire continued to extend its sway over Eastern Europe till a
decisive defeat outside the gates of Vienna at the end of 16th century stalled their
advance. But the whole of Balkans Peninsula including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania
and Serbia remained under Turkish rule till the end of the First World War in 1919.
The Christian people and rulers of Europe had to wage continuous struggle to
prevent the Islamic expansion into Central Europe and to liberate the Balkans from
their hold. They were well aware of the character and methodology of Islam. The
British premier Gladstone made this clear when he raised his hand holding a copy of
the Quran in the House of Commons and declared that there could be no peace in
the world so long as this book remained.
At the same time Islam began to make a push towards Hindustan via Makran
coast. Sind was conquered in 712 AD. by Arab hordes led by Mohammed-bin-
Qasim. But they could not go beyond Multan in the North nor could they push into
Rajasthan and Gujarat in the West. The next Islamic push into Hindustan was made
by Islamist Turks via Afghanistan. It took them 300 years to establish their full sway
over Afghanistan. Subkotgin got control of Kabul in 998 which was then the summer
capital of Hindushahi Kingdom of Lahore. His successor Mahmud Ghazni made a
push towards Hindustan via Khyber Pass. A decisive battle was fought at Pushp-pur,
now Peshawar, in 1008 AD. with Hindu army under the leadership of King Anang
Pal. Twelve years later Mahmud conquered and annexed Lahore to his Kingdom of
Ghazni in 1020 A.D. Thus the territories which are now included in Pakistan came
under muslim rule by 1 020AD. It took Islamic invaders about 200 years more to
reach Delhi which was occupied by Mohammed Ghori in 1192 A.D. His slave and
successor Qutbuddin Aibak who had nothing to do with the so-called Outab Minar which
existed long before Islamic entry into Delhi, ruled over the Islamic Kingdom of Delhi from
1206to 1210AD. The expansion of Muslim power continued after that but they had to meet
stiff resistance at every step. Their expansion into South was effectively checked by the
Vijaynagar empire for about two centuries. The push of the Moghuls to South India
continued for some time after the battle of Talikot in 1564 which resulted in the fall of
Vijaynagar empire. A new challenge to the Muslim expansion in the South came from
Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji in the 17th century. In the meantime, Hindu
resistance in the North became a national movement for the freedom of the country. But
before it could finally succeed the British stepped in . They took over a major part of
Hindustan by the end of the18th century. Fall of Hindu Kingdom of Punjab in 1845
completed the British sway over Hindustan. They popularised the name India for
Hindustan. Thus, by the middle of the 19th century, the Muslim domination over a major
part of Asia, North Africa and Eastern Europe had begun to end.
The last ditch effort by the Muslim ruling class to reestablish its sway over India was
made in 1857. They got cooperation and support of Nana Sahib, the last Peshwa who was
spending his days of humiliation in Bithur near Kanpur with some of his supporters. But this
effort failed. The failure of the great rebellion of 1857 called mutiny by the British and war of
independence by Savarkar marked the end of the armed resistance to the establishment of
British rule in India. It was a major blow to the Hindu patriots who had been carrying on war
of independence against the foreign rule of Muslim invaders for centuries. India thus
became a Dar-ul-Harab for Muslims particularly those of foreign origin who had ruled part
of India for long centuries. Their disappointment was expressed by poet Hali in the
following telling lines:
"Deene Hajazi Ka Bebak Beda, Kiya Par Jisne Satan Samandar ; Jo Na Sehu Mein Atka
Na Jehun Mein Atka, Aake Dahana Mein Ganga Ke Duba."
(The fearless armade of Islam which crossed the seven seas and whose advance could not
be stopped by mighty rivers like Sindhu and Oxus, finally sank in the sea of Ganga)
It led to two kinds of reaction among the Muslim leaders. One was expressed by Hali
in his famous couplet: "Ruksate Hindustan, Ai Gulistan Bekhzan ;
Bahut Din Rah Chuke Hum Tere Badeshi Mehman."
(Farewell O! Hindustan, a garden in which autumn never comes, we, your foreign guests,
have lived here long enough.)
But the other reaction which found voice in Sayyad Ahmed Khan of Aligarh and other
high ranking Muslims of foreign origin of his elk was that they should make a common
cause with the British, the new foreign rulers, to checkmate the Hindus who had fought
against them for long centuries.
The British reaction to this great rebellion and its failure was not much different. They
first thought the Moghul and other Muslim elite of Delhi and Lucknow to be the kingpin of
this rebellion and decided to suppress them with a heavy hand. But after deeper analysis of
the whole development they came to the conclusion that the real chalilenge to their rule in
India will come from the Hindus who had fought against foreign Muslim rule for centuries
and not from the Muslims. This assessment was strengthened by the last ditch resistance
to their rule continued by Nana Peshwa, Tantya Tope, Raja Kunwar Singh and other Hindu
patriots long after the Muslim leaders had surrendered and accepted the fait accompli.
They, therefore, devised new strategy which was spelt out by Sir John Strartchy, a senior
member of the Viceroy's Council. According to him, in the new situation in India the political
interests of the Muslim elite who had ruled over India for a long time and the political
interests of the British were common. The British too will meet resistance to their rule
primarily from the Hindus. Therefore,the British must win over the Muslim elite. That was
the beginning of the Anglo-Muslim alliance aimed at torpedoing the nationalist freedom
movement restarted by Hindu patriots soon after.
The Indian National Congress founded by a British officer, A.D. Hume, in 1885, came
in the control of M.K. Gandhi after the death of Lokmanya Tilak in 1920. Wittingly or
unwittingly he began to play the game of the British by laying stress on Hindu-Muslim unity
and non-violence as preconditions for pursuance of freedom movement under his
leadership. Aligarh Muslim University founded by Sir Sayyad Ahmed and the Muslim
League formed in the early years of the 20th century, became two tools of the British in
pursuit of this policy. It was Sayaad Ahmed who first put forth the idea of a separate Islamic
homeland within the national frontiers of India. The British began to back this idea directly
or indirectly. Introduction of separate electorate forMuslims in 1909 was the first potent step
in this direction.
Encouraged by the British whose first concern was safeguarding their strategic
interests all over the world, the Muslim leaders began to step up their separatist demand,
as a pre-condition for any co-operation with the Congress which was projected by the
British as a Hindu organisation. The Congress under Gandhi's leadership began to
concede their demands. This process of conceding the separatist demands of Muslim
League to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity to solve the Muslim problem culminated in the
partition of India on the basis of religion in 1947. The Muslim League and the British
succeeded in their game. The British got a secure strategic foothold in Pakistan before they
left India for good and the Muslim League revived the Muslim rule over a part of India which
became a new Dar-ul-Islam whithin the geographical boundaries of Hindustan.
Partition of India and creation of Pakistan as a new Islamic state in South Asia at a
time when Islam was under siege all over the world particularly after the defeat and
disintegration of the Turkish Empire in 1919 and process of modernisation and reformation
of Islam began by Kamal Ataturk in Turkey, proved to be a shot in the arm of Isl8.mic
fundamentalists who wanted to revive fundamentalist Quranic Islam as conceived by
Mohammed.
This marked the beginning of revival of the Muslim problem to solve which the
nationalist India had paid stupendous price of partition of motherland not only in truncated
Hindu India but also in other parts of the world.

-End-
_________________________
I also made a vegetarian version,with tempe and tofu chunks for myself and others.Get over it.
Kosong.Wolo.Setunggal.Setunggal.Setunggal.Kosong.Pitu.Setunggal.Kosong.Wolo=Tempik

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#66826 - 21 Dec 07 19:37 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: Capt. Mainwaring]
flingwing Offline
Member++

Registered: 28 May 07
Posts: 188
Loc: Jakarta
When you cut and paste copied text into a forum (or an email to someone), it is good practice to first paste the text into a DOS-text program (like Notepad) where you get rid of the original line breaks.

Then, you can make new paragraph breaks in your final, pasted text, and it's easier for your readers to read.
rockon

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#66827 - 21 Dec 07 19:43 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: flingwing]
Capt. Mainwaring Offline
Pujangga Besar

Registered: 16 Aug 06
Posts: 3225
Loc: here
Quoting: flingwing
When you cut and paste copied text into a forum (or an email to someone), it is good practice to first paste the text into a DOS-text program (like Notepad) where you get rid of the original line breaks.

Then, you can make new paragraph breaks in your final, pasted text, and it's easier for your readers to read.
rockon


I couldn't be arsed.

It's also good practice to post the source.

wank
_________________________
I also made a vegetarian version,with tempe and tofu chunks for myself and others.Get over it.
Kosong.Wolo.Setunggal.Setunggal.Setunggal.Kosong.Pitu.Setunggal.Kosong.Wolo=Tempik

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#66828 - 21 Dec 07 20:11 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: Capt. Mainwaring]
flingwing Offline
Member++

Registered: 28 May 07
Posts: 188
Loc: Jakarta
Below is an easier-to-read formatted version of the text above, with several paragraphs of minutiae about Islam in India cut.

Expansion of Islam Jehad in Practice
The steps taken and means adopted by Prophet Mohammed during his life time for propagation of Islam and expansion of Arab Islamic Empire which became the model and guideline for his successors and followers, are reflected and illustrated by the history of Islamic expansion since its inception. The battle of Badar fought under the direct leadership of Mohammed which led to the conquest of Mecca and re-entry into it of Mohammed as a conqueror and the strategy adopted to win this battle and the treatment he meted out to the vanquished and the rules he laid down for the distribution of the booty of war called" Maale Ganimat", have come to be accepted as the model code of conduct for the Islamic invaders all over the world. According to this code of conduct, the Muslim invaders have to treat every invasion as Jehad or a holy war. Victory in such a war entitled the victor to total control over the lives and possessions of the vanquished. The defeated non-Muslims or kafirs are to be exterminated or converted to Islam. All the places of worship where idol worship or other non-Islamic forms of worship are followed, have to be destroyed and supremacy of Islam in all spheres of life has to be established. The possessions of the vanquished including their families, women, children, cattle, land and houses have to be taken as Maale Ganimat and one-fifth of it is to be given to the leader and the rest distributed among other Jehadis.

Those who get killed in such a Jehad are entitled to immediate entry into Islamic Jannat (paradise) without waiting for the day of judgement or Qayamat. A very rosy picture of the paradise is drawn in Islamic scriptures. Every entrant into it will get 72 Hureis besides a number of young boys for eternal sexual and carnal pleasure. This promise of continuation of sex after death in the most luxurious setting has proved to be the most alluring motivation for Jehad all through the Islamic history. According to Anwar Sheikh ,sex and violence have proved to be the two most importand factors in the spread of Islam and Arab Islamic Empire.

Almost the whole of Arabia had been Islamised and cleansed of all Kafirs during the life time of Mohammed. It got a big boost during the Khalifate of the first three Khalifas- Abu Bakr, Omar and Usman. This brought the whole of Iran, Egypt and Northern Africa under Arab Islamic Empire before the end of the century. In the early eighth century the Arabs and Berber Muslims of North Africa entered into Spain by crossing the Strait of Gibraltar. Spain was the first European country to fall and become a part of Arab Islamic Empire in 711 AD. From Spain they tried to move into France. They won some early victories but their push was stopped by Charles Martel of France by inflicting a decisive defeat on the invaders in the battle of Tours in 732 AD.

That put a stop to the progress of Islam in Europe from the South-West. At the same time the Arabs continued to push towards Constantinople which had come to be identified as the centre of Christiandom. In the meantime, many Turks had embraced Islam and the Ottoman Turks had acquired a dominating position in the Islamic world. They conquered Constantinople in 1453 which opened the gates of Europe for Islam from the East. Ottoman Empire continued to extend its sway over Eastern Europe till a decisive defeat outside the gates of Vienna at the end of 16th century stalled their advance. But the whole of Balkans Peninsula including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia remained under Turkish rule till the end of the First World War in 1919. The Christian people and rulers of Europe had to wage continuous struggle to prevent the Islamic expansion into Central Europe and to liberate the Balkans from their hold. They were well aware of the character and methodology of Islam. The British premier Gladstone made this clear when he raised his hand holding a copy of the Quran in the House of Commons and declared that there could be no peace in the world so long as this book remained.

At the same time Islam began to make a push towards Hindustan via Makran coast. Sind was conquered in 712 AD. by Arab hordes led by Mohammed-bin-Qasim. But they could not go beyond Multan in the North nor could they push into Rajasthan and Gujarat in the West. The next Islamic push into Hindustan was made by Islamist Turks via Afghanistan. It took them 300 years to establish their full sway over Afghanistan. Subkotgin got control of Kabul in 998 which was then the summer capital of Hindushahi Kingdom of Lahore.

[NOTE: large amount of material cut concerning the history of Islam in waging war in India].

Encouraged by the British whose first concern was safeguarding their strategic interests all over the world, the Muslim leaders began to step up their separatist demand, as a pre-condition for any co-operation with the Congress which was projected by the British as a Hindu organisation. The Congress under Gandhi's leadership began to concede their demands. This process of conceding the separatist demands of Muslim League to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity to solve the Muslim problem culminated in the partition of India on the basis of religion in 1947. The Muslim League and the British succeeded in their game. The British got a secure strategic foothold in Pakistan before they left India for good and the Muslim League revived the Muslim rule over a part of India which became a new Dar-ul-Islam whithin the geographical boundaries of Hindustan.

Partition of India and creation of Pakistan as a new Islamic state in South Asia at a time when Islam was under siege all over the world particularly after the defeat and disintegration of the Turkish Empire in 1919 and process of modernisation and reformation of Islam began by Kamal Ataturk in Turkey, proved to be a shot in the arm of Islamic fundamentalists who wanted to revive fundamentalist Quranic Islam as conceived by Mohammed.

This marked the beginning of revival of the Muslim problem to solve which the nationalist India had paid stupendous price of partition of motherland not only in truncated Hindu India but also in other parts of the world.

--end--

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#66829 - 21 Dec 07 21:21 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: flingwing]
Capt. Mainwaring Offline
Pujangga Besar

Registered: 16 Aug 06
Posts: 3225
Loc: here
Quoting: flingwing
Below is an easier-to-read formatted version of the text above, with several paragraphs of minutiae about Islam in India cut.



Well I suppose you nearly looked clever. Are you thinking of taking over from old Carrotchomper then?

Just out of interest, do you know that you are in Indonesia, not India?

grin

:cewet:
_________________________
I also made a vegetarian version,with tempe and tofu chunks for myself and others.Get over it.
Kosong.Wolo.Setunggal.Setunggal.Setunggal.Kosong.Pitu.Setunggal.Kosong.Wolo=Tempik

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#66838 - 22 Dec 07 08:32 Re: A Short, 15-minute History of the World [Re: Capt. Mainwaring]
Roy's Hair Offline
Pujangga Besar

Registered: 08 Nov 06
Posts: 3974
Loc: jakarta
All interesting stuff. My one from the Hitch-meister's provocative little tome God Is Not Great, a cracking read.
_________________________
Chinese like more traditional patterns on their ring.

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