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#42659 - 31 Jan 07 04:09 All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version)
kucinggemuk Offline
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Registered: 27 Dec 06
Posts: 34
Loc: Jakarta
Tanya Jawab Seputar Penyakit Flu Burung!

Senin, 26 Januari, 2004 oleh: Gsianturi

Gizi.net - Penularan virus influenza asal unggas ke manusia sebenarnya bukan hal baru, karena telah dilaporkan sejak tahun 1968.

Menurut Dr. Handrawan Nadesul dalam penjelasannya kepada KCM, Sabtu (24/1), sejauh ini belum ada bukti kuat penyakit flu burung menular dari manusia yang terinfeksi ke manusia lainnya.

“Seandainya, ada penderita flu burung asal Vietnam, Hongkong atau Thailand lolos masuk Indonesia, kita tak perlu cemas, karena penularan penyakit ini tidak mungkin terjadi antarmanusia,” jelasnya.

Anda pun aman mengonsumsi daging ayam karena hanya unggas hidup yang bisa menularkan penyakit ini. Apalagi pemanasan dengan suhu 56 derajat Celcius selama 30 menit sudah mengakibatkan virus influenza ini "mati".

Berikut penjelasan selengkapnya
Apakah penyakit flu burung?
FLU burung atau flu unggas (bird flu, avian influenza) adalah penyakit flu yang disebabkan oleh virus yang terdapat pada burung liar.

Tidak semua virus pada binatang dapat menyerang manusia. Virus flu burung yang tingkat kemampuan mematikannya tinggi atau high-pathogenic avian influenza --dan dapat menginfeksi manusia (zoonosis)-- adalah tipe H5N1 dan H9N2

Galur virus influenza H5N1 ini, hanya ditemukan di Hongkong pada tahun 1997 dan tidak ditemukan di negara-negara di luar Hongkong. Namun, dalam perkembangannya, ternyata galur H5N1 itu juga yang menyebabkan kematian manusia di Vietnam bulan Januari 2004.

AWALNYA, penyakit flu burung ini adalah penyakit hewan yang menyerang bangsa unggas. Flu burung atau sampar unggas (fowl plaque) adalah penyakit virus yang menyerang berbagai jenis unggas, meliputi ayam, kalkun, merpati, unggas air, burung-burung piaraan, hingga ke burung-burung liar. Namun, babi juga dapat tertular flu burung.

Gejala pada unggas biasanya adalah bervariasi, bahkan kadang tanpa gejala. Gejala yang umum adalah tanda-tanda pada pernapasannya, seperti bersin, pembengkakan kepala, jengger berwarna biru, bercak merah pada bagian tulang sayap. Juga muncul tanda-tanda saraf seperti tidak dapat berjalan, kepala dan leher berputar-putar.

Gejala umum lainnya adalah mencret, penurunan produksi dan makan, serta kematian yang rendah serta tinggi tergantung galur virusnya. Namun, gejala-gejala tersebut sangat umum dan bisa juga disebabkan oleh bakteri, sehingga diagnosis yang meyakinkan sangat dibutuhkan.

Bagaimana penularannya pada manusia?Penularan dari unggas ke manusia terjadi bila kita melakukan kontak langsung --seperti memelihara atau menyembelih-- dan tinggal di sekitar unggas hidup yang terinfeksi penyakit ini.

Unggas yang terinfeksi dapat pula mengeluarkan virus ini melalui tinja, yang kemudian mengering dan hancur menjadi semacam bubuk. Bubuk inilah yang dihirup oleh manusia atau binatang lainnya.

Virus ini bisa bertahan dalam waktu cukup lama pada jaringan atau kotoran unggas yang sudah mati, terutama pada temperatur rendah.

Dari 18 orang yang terinfeksi flu burung pada 1997 di Hongkong, semuanya melakukan kontak cukup dekat dengan unggas hidup entah itu di pasar atau peternakan.

Cara terbaik untuk menghindari terinfeksi virus ini adalah tidak melakukan kontak dengan unggas hidup dimana wabah flu burung sedang merebak.

Kelompok profesi yang berisiko terinfeksi virus influenza burung adalah para pekerja di peternakan ayam, pasar burung dan rumah potong ayam.

Anda juga dianjurkan segera mencuci tangan setelah melakukan kontak dengan ayam, burung atau jenis unggas lainnya.

Keunikan biologi virus influenza adalah kemampuan virus ini mengalami perubahan genetika (genetic reassortment) sehingga mampu menembus species barrier dan terjadilah penularan antarjenis (species) makhluk. Misalnya dari binatang ke manusia.

Penularan virus influenza asal unggas ke manusia ini bukan hal baru, karena telah dilaporkan sejak tahun 1968.

Sejauh ini belum ada bukti kuat penyakit flu burung menular dari manusia yang terinfeksi ke manusia lainnya.

Jadi, seandainya ada penderita flu burung asal Vietnam, Hongkong atau Thailand yang lolos masuk Indonesia, kita tak perlu cemas karena penularan penyakit flu burung tidak mungkin terjadi antarmanusia.

Pada kasus yang terjadi di Hongkong kebanyakan menyerang anak-anak dan orang dewasa yang tinggal di pemukiman kumuh di sekitar peternakan ayam, pasar ayam, atau para pekerja di peternakan ayam dan rumah potong ayam.

Untuk memberantas penyakit ini harus melalui tindakan stamping out, yakni membunuh semua ayam pada peternakan terserang, disertai desinfeksi kandang.

Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, mungkinkah terjadi penularan antarmanusia?Penularan antarspecies yakni dari unggas ke babi atau ke manusia telah banyak dilaporkan oleh peneliti dari berbagai penjuru dunia.

Nah, sekali virus asal hewan tersebut menyerang manusia, maka penularan antarmanusia dapat terjadi. Hal inilah yang dikhawatirkan masyarakat Hongkong.

Menurut Dr Handrawan Nadesul, kecemasan yang berkembang saat ini adalah: virus flu burung tersebut mengalami mutasi/perubahan dan mendompleng flu manusia. Kalau ini terjadi, maka flu yang sudah bermutasi tadi tabiatnya akan berubah menyerupai flu biasa , begitu juga cara penularannya.

Seberapa amankah mengonsumsi daging unggas (ayam, itik, burung dan sebagainya) bagi konsumen?
Konsumen daging unggas Indonesia tidak perlu khawatir tehadap isu flu burung di Hongkong, Vitenam, dan Thailand, karena virus influenza sangat peka terhadap pemanasan.

Pemanasan dengan suhu 56C selama 30 menit sudah mengakibatkan virus influenza "mati".

Makin tinggi suhu pemasakan daging unggas makin cepat pula virus tersebut menjadi inaktif. Di luar tubuh hewan, virus influenza akan menjadi inaktif dalam tempo 15 jam.

Bagaimana gejala penyakit flu burung pada manusia?
Sama seperti flu biasa, penderita akan mengalami demam tinggi, sekitar 40 derajat Celcius, batuk-batuk, tenggorokan sakit, badan lemas, hidung beringus, pegal linu, pusing, peradangan selaput mata (mata memerah). Gejala lain seperti mencret dan muntah seringkali juga terjadi, terutama pada anak-anak.

Untuk memastikan apakah Anda menderita flu biasa atau flu burung harus melalui pemeriksaan darah.

Kelompok manakah yang rentan terkena penyakit ini?
Terutama menyerang anak-anak di bawah usia 12 tahun. Hampir separuh kasus flu burung pada manusia menimpa anak-anak.

Hal ini disebabkan sistem kekebalan tubuh anak-anak belum begitu kuat.

Adakah obat atau vaksinnya?
Belum ada! Penderita hanya akan diberi obat untuk meredakan gejala yang menyertai penyakit flu tersebut seperti demam, batuk atau pusing.

Obat-obatan tersebut hanya meredam gejalanya tetapi tidak mengobati penyakitnya.

Bila terkena penyakit ini, sebaiknya Anda banyak minum dan beristirahat dan mengonsumsi makanan bergizi, sehingga ketahanan tubuh Anda meningkat. (ZRP/berbagai sumber

Sumber:
http://www.kompas.co.id/

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#42660 - 31 Jan 07 04:14 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: kucinggemuk]
jok Offline
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Registered: 21 Mar 06
Posts: 1099
Loc: Jakarta
in English please.....!
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#42662 - 31 Jan 07 04:15 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: jok]
Dilli Offline
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Registered: 26 Feb 06
Posts: 8044
Loc: Nearest Bar
That would be a fair bit of translating!
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#42670 - 31 Jan 07 04:33 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: Dilli]
riccardo Offline
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Registered: 12 Oct 05
Posts: 2195
Loc: Jakarta
Why post an outdated, inaccurate article on such an important issue that is utterly essential to have clear facts? Furthermore, why post Kompas's medical opinions when you can get the best, most recent, info available from real scientists that know what they're talking about at WHO.org or The CDC's website?? No wonder people keep dying here.
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#42683 - 31 Jan 07 04:43 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: riccardo]
riccardo Offline
Pujangga

Registered: 12 Oct 05
Posts: 2195
Loc: Jakarta
This is also quite long, but here is the official W.H.O. FAQ (http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en/index.html on bird flu:

other sites with accurate info include:
http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/avfluqa.html
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/qa.htm

What is avian influenza?

Avian influenza, or “bird flu”, is a contagious disease of animals caused by viruses that normally infect only birds and, less commonly, pigs. Avian influenza viruses are highly species-specific, but have, on rare occasions, crossed the species barrier to infect humans.

In domestic poultry, infection with avian influenza viruses causes two main forms of disease, distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The so-called “low pathogenic” form commonly causes only mild symptoms (ruffled feathers, a drop in egg production) and may easily go undetected. The highly pathogenic form is far more dramatic. It spreads very rapidly through poultry flocks, causes disease affecting multiple internal organs, and has a mortality that can approach 100%, often within 48 hours.

Which viruses cause highly pathogenic disease?

Influenza A viruses1 have 16 H subtypes and 9 N subtypes2. Only viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes are known to cause the highly pathogenic form of the disease. However, not all viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes are highly pathogenic and not all will cause severe disease in poultry.

On present understanding, H5 and H7 viruses are introduced to poultry flocks in their low pathogenic form. When allowed to circulate in poultry populations, the viruses can mutate, usually within a few months, into the highly pathogenic form. This is why the presence of an H5 or H7 virus in poultry is always cause for concern, even when the initial signs of infection are mild.

Do migratory birds spread highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses?

The role of migratory birds in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza is not fully understood. Wild waterfowl are considered the natural reservoir of all influenza A viruses. They have probably carried influenza viruses, with no apparent harm, for centuries. They are known to carry viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes, but usually in the low pathogenic form. Considerable circumstantial evidence suggests that migratory birds can introduce low pathogenic H5 and H7 viruses to poultry flocks, which then mutate to the highly pathogenic form.

In the past, highly pathogenic viruses have been isolated from migratory birds on very rare occasions involving a few birds, usually found dead within the flight range of a poultry outbreak. This finding long suggested that wild waterfowl are not agents for the onward transmission of these viruses.

Recent events make it likely that some migratory birds are now directly spreading the H5N1 virus in its highly pathogenic form. Further spread to new areas is expected.

What is special about the current outbreaks in poultry?

The current outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza, which began in South-East Asia in mid-2003, are the largest and most severe on record. Never before in the history of this disease have so many countries been simultaneously affected, resulting in the loss of so many birds.

The causative agent, the H5N1 virus, has proved to be especially tenacious. Despite the death or destruction of an estimated 150 million birds, the virus is now considered endemic in many parts of Indonesia and Viet Nam and in some parts of Cambodia, China, Thailand, and possibly also the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Control of the disease in poultry is expected to take several years.

The H5N1 virus is also of particular concern for human health, as explained below.

Which countries have been affected by outbreaks in poultry?

From mid-December 2003 through early February 2004, poultry outbreaks caused by the H5N1 virus were reported in eight Asian nations (listed in order of reporting): the Republic of Korea, Viet Nam, Japan, Thailand, Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Indonesia, and China. Most of these countries had never before experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in their histories.

In early August 2004, Malaysia reported its first outbreak of H5N1 in poultry, becoming the ninth Asian nation affected. Russia reported its first H5N1 outbreak in poultry in late July 2005, followed by reports of disease in adjacent parts of Kazakhstan in early August. Deaths of wild birds from highly pathogenic H5N1 were reported in both countries. Almost simultaneously, Mongolia reported the detection of H5N1 in dead migratory birds. In October 2005, H5N1 was confirmed in poultry in Turkey and Romania. Outbreaks in wild and domestic birds are under investigation elsewhere.

Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Malaysia have announced control of their poultry outbreaks and are now considered free of the disease. In the other affected areas, outbreaks are continuing with varying degrees of severity.

What are the implications for human health?

The widespread persistence of H5N1 in poultry populations poses two main risks for human health.

The first is the risk of direct infection when the virus passes from poultry to humans, resulting in very severe disease. Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused the largest number of cases of severe disease and death in humans. Unlike normal seasonal influenza, where infection causes only mild respiratory symptoms in most people, the disease caused by H5N1 follows an unusually aggressive clinical course, with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Primary viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure are common. In the present outbreak, more than half of those infected with the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults.

A second risk, of even greater concern, is that the virus – if given enough opportunities – will change into a form that is highly infectious for humans and spreads easily from person to person. Such a change could mark the start of a global outbreak (a pandemic).

Where have human cases occurred?

In the current outbreak, laboratory-confirmed human cases have been reported in four countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

Hong Kong has experienced two outbreaks in the past. In 1997, in the first recorded instance of human infection with H5N1, the virus infected 18 people and killed 6 of them. In early 2003, the virus caused two infections, with one death, in a Hong Kong family with a recent travel history to southern China.

How do people become infected?

Direct contact with infected poultry, or surfaces and objects contaminated by their faeces, is presently considered the main route of human infection. To date, most human cases have occurred in rural or periurban areas where many households keep small poultry flocks, which often roam freely, sometimes entering homes or sharing outdoor areas where children play. As infected birds shed large quantities of virus in their faeces, opportunities for exposure to infected droppings or to environments contaminated by the virus are abundant under such conditions. Moreover, because many households in Asia depend on poultry for income and food, many families sell or slaughter and consume birds when signs of illness appear in a flock, and this practice has proved difficult to change. Exposure is considered most likely during slaughter, defeathering, butchering, and preparation of poultry for cooking.

Is it safe to eat poultry and poultry products?

Yes, though certain precautions should be followed in countries currently experiencing outbreaks. In areas free of the disease, poultry and poultry products can be prepared and consumed as usual (following good hygienic practices and proper cooking), with no fear of acquiring infection with the H5N1 virus.

In areas experiencing outbreaks, poultry and poultry products can also be safely consumed provided these items are properly cooked and properly handled during food preparation. The H5N1 virus is sensitive to heat. Normal temperatures used for cooking (70oC in all parts of the food) will kill the virus. Consumers need to be sure that all parts of the poultry are fully cooked (no “pink” parts) and that eggs, too, are properly cooked (no “runny” yolks).

Consumers should also be aware of the risk of cross-contamination. Juices from raw poultry and poultry products should never be allowed, during food preparation, to touch or mix with items eaten raw. When handling raw poultry or raw poultry products, persons involved in food preparation should wash their hands thoroughly and clean and disinfect surfaces in contact with the poultry products Soap and hot water are sufficient for this purpose.

In areas experiencing outbreaks in poultry, raw eggs should not be used in foods that will not be further heat-treated as, for example by cooking or baking.

Avian influenza is not transmitted through cooked food. To date, no evidence indicates that anyone has become infected following the consumption of properly cooked poultry or poultry products, even when these foods were contaminated with the H5N1 virus.

Does the virus spread easily from birds to humans?

No. Though more than 100 human cases have occurred in the current outbreak, this is a small number compared with the huge number of birds affected and the numerous associated opportunities for human exposure, especially in areas where backyard flocks are common. It is not presently understood why some people, and not others, become infected following similar exposures.

What about the pandemic risk?

A pandemic can start when three conditions have been met: a new influenza virus subtype emerges; it infects humans, causing serious illness; and it spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The H5N1 virus amply meets the first two conditions: it is a new virus for humans (H5N1 viruses have never circulated widely among people), and it has infected more than 100 humans, killing over half of them. No one will have immunity should an H5N1-like pandemic virus emerge.

All prerequisites for the start of a pandemic have therefore been met save one: the establishment of efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission of the virus. The risk that the H5N1 virus will acquire this ability will persist as long as opportunities for human infections occur. These opportunities, in turn, will persist as long as the virus continues to circulate in birds, and this situation could endure for some years to come.

What changes are needed for H5N1 to become a pandemic virus?

The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig. Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread.

The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action.

What is the significance of limited human-to-human transmission?

Though rare, instances of limited human-to-human transmission of H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses have occurred in association with outbreaks in poultry and should not be a cause for alarm. In no instance has the virus spread beyond a first generation of close contacts or caused illness in the general community. Data from these incidents suggest that transmission requires very close contact with an ill person. Such incidents must be thoroughly investigated but – provided the investigation indicates that transmission from person to person is very limited – such incidents will not change the WHO overall assessment of the pandemic risk. There have been a number of instances of avian influenza infection occurring among close family members. It is often impossible to determine if human-to-human transmission has occurred since the family members are exposed to the same animal and environmental sources as well as to one another.

How serious is the current pandemic risk?

The risk of pandemic influenza is serious. With the H5N1 virus now firmly entrenched in large parts of Asia, the risk that more human cases will occur will persist. Each additional human case gives the virus an opportunity to improve its transmissibility in humans, and thus develop into a pandemic strain. The recent spread of the virus to poultry and wild birds in new areas further broadens opportunities for human cases to occur. While neither the timing nor the severity of the next pandemic can be predicted, the probability that a pandemic will occur has increased.

Are there any other causes for concern?

Yes. Several.

• Domestic ducks can now excrete large quantities of highly pathogenic virus without showing signs of illness, and are now acting as a “silent” reservoir of the virus, perpetuating transmission to other birds. This adds yet another layer of complexity to control efforts and removes the warning signal for humans to avoid risky behaviours.

• When compared with H5N1 viruses from 1997 and early 2004, H5N1 viruses now circulating are more lethal to experimentally infected mice and to ferrets (a mammalian model) and survive longer in the environment.

• H5N1 appears to have expanded its host range, infecting and killing mammalian species previously considered resistant to infection with avian influenza viruses.

• The behaviour of the virus in its natural reservoir, wild waterfowl, may be changing. The spring 2005 die-off of upwards of 6,000 migratory birds at a nature reserve in central China, caused by highly pathogenic H5N1, was highly unusual and probably unprecedented. In the past, only two large die-offs in migratory birds, caused by highly pathogenic viruses, are known to have occurred: in South Africa in 1961 (H5N3) and in Hong Kong in the winter of 2002–2003 (H5N1).

Why are pandemics such dreaded events?

Influenza pandemics are remarkable events that can rapidly infect virtually all countries. Once international spread begins, pandemics are considered unstoppable, caused as they are by a virus that spreads very rapidly by coughing or sneezing. The fact that infected people can shed virus before symptoms appear adds to the risk of international spread via asymptomatic air travellers.

The severity of disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus vary greatly, and cannot be known prior to the emergence of the virus. During past pandemics, attack rates reached 25-35% of the total population. Under the best circumstances, assuming that the new virus causes mild disease, the world could still experience an estimated 2 million to 7.4 million deaths (projected from data obtained during the 1957 pandemic). Projections for a more virulent virus are much higher. The 1918 pandemic, which was exceptional, killed at least 40 million people. In the USA, the mortality rate during that pandemic was around 2.5%.

Pandemics can cause large surges in the numbers of people requiring or seeking medical or hospital treatment, temporarily overwhelming health services. High rates of worker absenteeism can also interrupt other essential services, such as law enforcement, transportation, and communications. Because populations will be fully susceptible to an H5N1-like virus, rates of illness could peak fairly rapidly within a given community. This means that local social and economic disruptions may be temporary. They may, however, be amplified in today’s closely interrelated and interdependent systems of trade and commerce. Based on past experience, a second wave of global spread should be anticipated within a year.

As all countries are likely to experience emergency conditions during a pandemic, opportunities for inter-country assistance, as seen during natural disasters or localized disease outbreaks, may be curtailed once international spread has begun and governments focus on protecting domestic populations.

What are the most important warning signals that a pandemic is about to start?

The most important warning signal comes when clusters of patients with clinical symptoms of influenza, closely related in time and place, are detected, as this suggests human-to-human transmission is taking place. For similar reasons, the detection of cases in health workers caring for H5N1 patients would suggest human-to-human transmission. Detection of such events should be followed by immediate field investigation of every possible case to confirm the diagnosis, identify the source, and determine whether human-to-human transmission is occurring.

Studies of viruses, conducted by specialized WHO reference laboratories, can corroborate field investigations by spotting genetic and other changes in the virus indicative of an improved ability to infect humans. This is why WHO repeatedly asks affected countries to share viruses with the international research community.

What is the status of vaccine development and production?

Vaccines effective against a pandemic virus are not yet available. Vaccines are produced each year for seasonal influenza but will not protect against pandemic influenza. Although a vaccine against the H5N1 virus is under development in several countries, no vaccine is ready for commercial production and no vaccines are expected to be widely available until several months after the start of a pandemic.

Some clinical trials are now under way to test whether experimental vaccines will be fully protective and to determine whether different formulations can economize on the amount of antigen required, thus boosting production capacity. Because the vaccine needs to closely match the pandemic virus, large-scale commercial production will not start until the new virus has emerged and a pandemic has been declared. Current global production capacity falls far short of the demand expected during a pandemic.

What drugs are available for treatment?

Two drugs (in the neuraminidase inhibitors class), oseltamivir (commercially known as Tamiflu) and zanamivir (commercially known as Relenza) can reduce the severity and duration of illness caused by seasonal influenza. The efficacy of the neuraminidase inhibitors depends, among others, on their early administration ( within 48 hours after symptom onset). For cases of human infection with H5N1, the drugs may improve prospects of survival, if administered early, but clinical data are limited. The H5N1 virus is expected to be susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitors. Antiviral resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors has been clinically negligible so far but is likely to be detected during widespread use during a pandemic.

An older class of antiviral drugs, the M2 inhibitors amantadine and rimantadine, could potentially be used against pandemic influenza, but resistance to these drugs can develop rapidly and this could significantly limit their effectiveness against pandemic influenza. Some currently circulating H5N1 strains are fully resistant to these the M2 inhibitors. However, should a new virus emerge through reassortment, the M2 inhibitors might be effective.

For the neuraminidase inhibitors, the main constraints – which are substantial – involve limited production capacity and a price that is prohibitively high for many countries. At present manufacturing capacity, which has recently quadrupled, it will take a decade to produce enough oseltamivir to treat 20% of the world’s population. The manufacturing process for oseltamivir is complex and time-consuming, and is not easily transferred to other facilities.

So far, most fatal pneumonia seen in cases of H5N1 infection has resulted from the effects of the virus, and cannot be treated with antibiotics. Nonetheless, since influenza is often complicated by secondary bacterial infection of the lungs, antibiotics could be life-saving in the case of late-onset pneumonia. WHO regards it as prudent for countries to ensure adequate supplies of antibiotics in advance.

Can a pandemic be prevented?

No one knows with certainty. The best way to prevent a pandemic would be to eliminate the virus from birds, but it has become increasingly doubtful if this can be achieved within the near future.

Following a donation by industry, WHO will have a stockpile of antiviral medications, sufficient for 3 million treatment courses, by early 2006. Recent studies, based on mathematical modelling, suggest that these drugs could be used prophylactically near the start of a pandemic to reduce the risk that a fully transmissible virus will emerge or at least to delay its international spread, thus gaining time to augment vaccine supplies.

The success of this strategy, which has never been tested, depends on several assumptions about the early behaviour of a pandemic virus, which cannot be known in advance. Success also depends on excellent surveillance and logistics capacity in the initially affected areas, combined with an ability to enforce movement restrictions in and out of the affected area. To increase the likelihood that early intervention using the WHO rapid-intervention stockpile of antiviral drugs will be successful, surveillance in affected countries needs to improve, particularly concerning the capacity to detect clusters of cases closely related in time and place.

What strategic actions are recommended by WHO?

In August 2005, WHO sent all countries a document outlining recommended strategic actions for responding to the avian influenza pandemic threat. Recommended actions aim to strengthen national preparedness, reduce opportunities for a pandemic virus to emerge, improve the early warning system, delay initial international spread, and accelerate vaccine development.

Is the world adequately prepared?

No. Despite an advance warning that has lasted almost two years, the world is ill-prepared to defend itself during a pandemic. WHO has urged all countries to develop preparedness plans, but only around 40 have done so. WHO has further urged countries with adequate resources to stockpile antiviral drugs nationally for use at the start of a pandemic. Around 30 countries are purchasing large quantities of these drugs, but the manufacturer has no capacity to fill these orders immediately. On present trends, most developing countries will have no access to vaccines and antiviral drugs throughout the duration of a pandemic.

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1 Influenza viruses are grouped into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza A and B viruses are of concern for human health. Only influenza A viruses can cause pandemics.

2 The H subtypes are epidemiologically most important, as they govern the ability of the virus to bind to and enter cells, where multiplication of the virus then occurs. The N subtypes govern the release of newly formed virus from the cells
_________________________
Just here proffering my pearls to swine, my throat to wolves and my trousers to the flagpole.

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#42688 - 31 Jan 07 04:48 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: riccardo]
jok Offline
Member**

Registered: 21 Mar 06
Posts: 1099
Loc: Jakarta
Quoting: riccardo
Why post an outdated, inaccurate article on such an important issue that is utterly essential to have clear facts? Furthermore, why post Kompas's medical opinions when you can get the best, most recent, info available from real scientists that know what they're talking about at WHO.org or The CDC's website?? No wonder people keep dying here.


Ricc, for indo , i think Kompas is better than pos kota.
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Little Jungle Bunny

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#42699 - 31 Jan 07 05:14 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: jok]
kucinggemuk Offline
Member+

Registered: 27 Dec 06
Posts: 34
Loc: Jakarta
hehe thanks Ella for "stand beside me",.it's funny your comment to Ricc but it's 100 % true,.thanks Ella hehehe

btw, I thought the community here is consists of people who speak Indo and other languages,... but ok,.well next time i will use English,..I noticed.
_________________________
"We are born with two eyes in front because we must not always look behind"

"I am the fat cat and steady in my 70 kilos weight, no doubt"

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#42704 - 31 Jan 07 05:33 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: kucinggemuk]
Orang Kanada Offline
Member*

Registered: 30 Sep 06
Posts: 621
Loc: Jakarta
Quoting: kucinggemuk
hehe thanks Ella for "stand beside me",.it's funny your comment to Ricc but it's 100 % true,.thanks Ella hehehe

btw, I thought the community here is consists of people who speak Indo and other languages,... but ok,.well next time i will use English,..I noticed.


Go back on the top of the page, it's written "JakChat - forums for Indonesia's English-speaking community"

...just saying...
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#42708 - 31 Jan 07 05:37 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: Orang Kanada]
Orang Kanada Offline
Member*

Registered: 30 Sep 06
Posts: 621
Loc: Jakarta
By-the-way kucing, I like your signature. It reminds me of something I heard few years ago: "Your eyes are in front of your body, as such as your mouth, nose and sex. Even the parts on the side of your body are made to go foward, as your legs, arms and even ears. The only thing in your back is your ass, so if you go behind you may step in your own shit."
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#42709 - 31 Jan 07 05:38 bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: jok]
sloopy Offline
Member+

Registered: 14 Feb 06
Posts: 32
Loc: very bad part of town
like or not, if you live here in indonesia, and risk around us...

When the bird flu infects a person, the disease is unusually aggressive with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Pneumonia and multi-organ failure are common. The result leads to death in half of the cases so far.

However it should be noted that it remains safe to consume poultry and poultry products that have been properly prepared and properly cooked.

We can reduce the risk of Avian Flu by washing our hands with soap. Nine of ten cases of flu come from dirty hands which touch the person’s nose or eyes. Nose and eyes are the most common entry points for the flu virus to the human body.

Wash your hands with soap very often - at least 10 times a day. Always wash hands after the toilet and always before eating. Wash hands under running water with lots of soap and rub your hands thoroughly for at least 20 seconds before washing of the soap. Take care no dirt is left under your finger nails.

(I had meeting in five stars hotel, when I was in the toilet I found many of us don't bother to washing hand with soap after toilet ceremony. Ah! some gals busy make their self prettier, than think about washing hands.. Hope gals here are aware of that!)

The simplest ways to reduce the risk of bird flu:

General advise


- Keep your hands clean.
- Do not let poultry enter your house.
- Do not eat poultry dead from disease
- Cook poultry meat thoroughly, until nothing red is found in the meat or bones
- Do not eat raw eggs

About Poultry
(you might don't need this information, but please spread to any body you think should know about this)

When you handle poultry
Wash your hands thoroughly with adequate soap and water after contact with poultry
Poultry droppings pose a big risk – wash your feet, shoes and hands thoroughly after contact with poultry.
If you slaughter poultry you should avoid blood on your body and wash yourself afterward.
Stay away from cock fights because drops of blood from the fighting cocks can spread the virus to you
If possible: Wear sandals or shoes, face mask and hand gloves when you handle poultry.

Keeping poultry
Keep your poultry isolated from other flocks of poultry.
Be aware that ducks can be infected by bird flu without showing any symptoms.
Avoid mixing different types of poultry for example chickens and ducks)
Pigs and poultry can be a deadly combination and should not be kept on the same farm. Pigs can harbour both bird and human flu viruses. The two strains could interact and form a strain that more easily infects humans.
If you find a sick chicken, all the chickens in the flock are infected, and dangerous. Surrounded flocks are also infected.

Do not pass disease to other people
Hold a hand in front of your nose and mouth when you sneeze; wash your hand carefully with soap afterward.

Please listen carefully to the health authority's advice in case of an outbreak in your area

The pandemic will happened! keep you and your family clean, it will make the difference of whether it’s 150 million or 5 million

for further questions contact red cross office
yay


Attachments
660-CTS2.jpg




Edited by snoopy (31 Jan 07 05:45)
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#42714 - 31 Jan 07 06:01 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: sloopy]
Macan Tutul Offline
Pujangga Muda

Registered: 02 Dec 05
Posts: 1502
Loc: Jungle and cage ;)
Quoting: snoopy
like or not, if you live here in indonesia, and risk around us...

When the bird flu infects a person, the disease is unusually aggressive with rapid deterioration and high fatality. Pneumonia and multi-organ failure are common. The result leads to death in half of the cases so far.

However it should be noted that it remains safe to consume poultry and poultry products that have been properly prepared and properly cooked.

We can reduce the risk of Avian Flu by washing our hands with soap. Nine of ten cases of flu come from dirty hands which touch the person’s nose or eyes. Nose and eyes are the most common entry points for the flu virus to the human body.

Wash your hands with soap very often - at least 10 times a day. Always wash hands after the toilet and always before eating. Wash hands under running water with lots of soap and rub your hands thoroughly for at least 20 seconds before washing of the soap. Take care no dirt is left under your finger nails.

(I had meeting in five stars hotel, when I was in the toilet I found many of us don't bother to washing hand with soap after toilet ceremony. Ah! some gals busy make their self prettier, than think about washing hands.. Hope gals here are aware of that!)

The simplest ways to reduce the risk of bird flu:

General advise


- Keep your hands clean.
- Do not let poultry enter your house.
- Do not eat poultry dead from disease
- Cook poultry meat thoroughly, until nothing red is found in the meat or bones
- Do not eat raw eggs

About Poultry
(you might don't need this information, but please spread to any body you think should know about this)

When you handle poultry
Wash your hands thoroughly with adequate soap and water after contact with poultry
Poultry droppings pose a big risk – wash your feet, shoes and hands thoroughly after contact with poultry.
If you slaughter poultry you should avoid blood on your body and wash yourself afterward.
Stay away from cock fights because drops of blood from the fighting cocks can spread the virus to you


I'm sorry for my lackness but this is the real cock = ayam/unggas right? smile wink
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" Don't be shy with yourself, you have lots of talent without you notice....that's human, just be who you are."

(Memoirs of 3/3/2007)

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#42716 - 31 Jan 07 06:02 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: jok]
riccardo Offline
Pujangga

Registered: 12 Oct 05
Posts: 2195
Loc: Jakarta
Quoting: Ela_K3000


Ricc, for indo , i think Kompas is better than pos kota.


Of course we agree on that, fair enough suit yourselves. But simply because Kompas is better than a kampungan tabloid does not mean Kompas is accurate or correct -- it just means that it's better than total crud.

If someone can run faster than an old grandma, it does not make him the fastest, or best runner, in the world. But we have the resources/tools to access the best information in the world (WHO website), so why would anybody rely on Kompas's limited understanding about such an important crucial issue?
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#42718 - 31 Jan 07 06:09 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Macan Tutul]
sloopy Offline
Member+

Registered: 14 Feb 06
Posts: 32
Loc: very bad part of town
MT yes babe, we should avoid COCK FIGHTS alias "adu ayam"
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friendship double your joy, divides your sorrow...

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#42719 - 31 Jan 07 06:16 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: riccardo]
jok Offline
Member**

Registered: 21 Mar 06
Posts: 1099
Loc: Jakarta
Ricc, this is just Kucing Gemuk put that articel based from Kompas right? and speaking about accurate or correct -- nobody care which newspaper is best or the best, but still for indo we familiar with Kompas as you know that Kompas is better than pos kota and other newspaper or kampung newspaper whatever you said. it is just newspaper and nobody care coz people just care about the news that the news are the same on every newspaper. that's it.
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#42720 - 31 Jan 07 06:17 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: sloopy]
Macan Tutul Offline
Pujangga Muda

Registered: 02 Dec 05
Posts: 1502
Loc: Jungle and cage ;)
Lol Snoopy.... but it mean "Ayam Jantan" ? wink
_________________________
" Don't be shy with yourself, you have lots of talent without you notice....that's human, just be who you are."

(Memoirs of 3/3/2007)

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#42721 - 31 Jan 07 06:23 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Macan Tutul]
riccardo Offline
Pujangga

Registered: 12 Oct 05
Posts: 2195
Loc: Jakarta
no worries Ela, everybody can make their own choices in life... As for me, I'll rely on proper, up-to-date, scientific info to stay as safe as possible.
_________________________
Just here proffering my pearls to swine, my throat to wolves and my trousers to the flagpole.

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#42722 - 31 Jan 07 06:30 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: riccardo]
jok Offline
Member**

Registered: 21 Mar 06
Posts: 1099
Loc: Jakarta
i do the same like yours Ricc, i like to read an up-to-date one, a little bit scientific (just to know) but no way for politic because i am alergy with politic.
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Little Jungle Bunny

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#42723 - 31 Jan 07 06:34 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: riccardo]
Piss Salon Offline
Pujangga Besar

Registered: 27 Jun 06
Posts: 4039
Loc: Jakpus
Thank God for the Red Cross Snoop Dawg.

"Do not pass disease to other people."

Best advice ever.

And I like this one.

"The pandemic will happened! keep you and your family clean, it will make the difference of whether it’s 150 million or 5 million."

A good excuse to go to a bar don't you think? I will use this on fiance tonight.

"Sorry darling, Pandemic imminent. Must dash to the local for a pint or two. You know I love you but my friends need me more. They are men after all and don't handle this death thing at all well. Ta ta."
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#42724 - 31 Jan 07 06:38 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Macan Tutul]
sloopy Offline
Member+

Registered: 14 Feb 06
Posts: 32
Loc: very bad part of town
MT, "adu ayam" for "ayam jantan", the betina will not fighting... peace, babe! cool

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#42725 - 31 Jan 07 06:44 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: sloopy]
Orang Kanada Offline
Member*

Registered: 30 Sep 06
Posts: 621
Loc: Jakarta
In complement to Snoopy's post, I'd copy and paste this I already posted in another thread:

If you have doubts if you are infected, here's the primary symptoms of infections:

Fever
Cough
Sore throat
Muscle aches
The urge to shit on windshields
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#42726 - 31 Jan 07 06:52 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Orang Kanada]
Macan Tutul Offline
Pujangga Muda

Registered: 02 Dec 05
Posts: 1502
Loc: Jungle and cage ;)
Lol cool.... Yes Snoopy dear .... peace always smile wink
_________________________
" Don't be shy with yourself, you have lots of talent without you notice....that's human, just be who you are."

(Memoirs of 3/3/2007)

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#42729 - 31 Jan 07 06:54 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Macan Tutul]
Macan Tutul Offline
Pujangga Muda

Registered: 02 Dec 05
Posts: 1502
Loc: Jungle and cage ;)
LOLOLOL OK smile
_________________________
" Don't be shy with yourself, you have lots of talent without you notice....that's human, just be who you are."

(Memoirs of 3/3/2007)

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#42734 - 31 Jan 07 07:22 Re: bird flu in my stupid english version [Re: Macan Tutul]
kucinggemuk Offline
Member+

Registered: 27 Dec 06
Posts: 34
Loc: Jakarta
For Ella : Thank you so much for your "back up" and explanation.
As I knew that people rather not care about up-to-date or out-of-date than the news itself. I have the up-to-date article also but nothing lose to read the out-of-date as far as it's still usefull for us.

For Ricc : thanks a lot also for your explanation and I do respect and appreciate it too smile
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"We are born with two eyes in front because we must not always look behind"

"I am the fat cat and steady in my 70 kilos weight, no doubt"

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#42738 - 31 Jan 07 07:54 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: Orang Kanada]
kucinggemuk Offline
Member+

Registered: 27 Dec 06
Posts: 34
Loc: Jakarta
hehe thank you OK..
despite actually we must not too to forget the past all, because sometimes the past is a good lesson too for us to step upward to become better,.
_________________________
"We are born with two eyes in front because we must not always look behind"

"I am the fat cat and steady in my 70 kilos weight, no doubt"

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#43130 - 02 Feb 07 18:14 Re: All about FLU BURUNG ( Indo version) [Re: kucinggemuk]
Orang Kanada Offline
Member*

Registered: 30 Sep 06
Posts: 621
Loc: Jakarta
The bird flu is now devastating Walt Disney World!


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